Header image alt text

Joyce Clark Unfiltered

For "the rest of the story"

Disclaimer: The comments in this blog are my personal opinion and may or may not reflect an adopted position of the city of Glendale and its city council.

I rarely make recommendations about any product or service. I’ve probably done it twice in all the years of my blog. I feel compelled to do so this time. For over a year I have been researching

Old faithful

cars prior to buying a new vehicle. I had a 17-year-old Lincoln Signature Town Car. It was reliable as heck. It was a big boat with an extremely comfortable ride and an enormous trunk, large enough for a dead body or, as in my case, to haul a wheelchair and many previous large Home Depot purchases. After 17 years it only had 121,000 miles and I made sure it was maintained regularly. I loved that car and wrestled whether to keep it and invest in the inevitable major repairs sure to appear or to finally bite the bullet and find some vehicle remotely similar to my big boat.

I was soon to learn that car manufacturers were discontinuing making large sedans in favor of crossovers and hybrids…none of which I wanted. So, to the luxury sedan market I went. I reviewed BMWs, Mercedes, Genesis, Audi…you name it. I researched and researched.  Many of the makes I reviewed had uneven reliability records and repairs were horribly expensive.

I finally narrowed my search to a BMW 7, a Genesis G-90 or a Cadillac GT6. All offered a quiet, comfortable ride and were similar in many ways. After test driving all, the car that finally blew me away was the Cadillac. It’s big with a quiet and comfortable, smooth ride and so much technology in it that I will never master all that it can do.

There is no more miserable experience than going to a dealership and maneuvering the purchase of a new car. It’s akin to going to a dentist. Not so in my case. Thanks to Arrowhead Cadillac my experience was wonderfully pleasant. I called the dealership and asked if they had a Certified Pre Owned GT6 in white or silver with a light interior expecting to be told ‘no.’ Thanks to Julie and Jim Behncke (jimbehncke@gmail,com, juliebehncke@gmail.com)  .  They not only found such an animal, they drove it to my home so that I could test drive it. The car was perfect and had everything I wanted and expected. Not only that, it had only had 18,000 miles on it and plenty of warranty left.

I thought about it for a few more days and during that time went back to personally revisit my other choices but none compared to this Cadillac. I wanted to reassure myself that I was making the correct choice for me.

I called Jim and Julie and told them I was ready to buy the car. That is where Michael Meewes, Arrowhead Cadillac’s General Manager, comes in. I told him my budget and he worked his magic to get the car into my price range. Then we had a deal.

Jim and Julie came down once again to deliver my new car and we did all the paperwork from

New Faithful

the comfort of my home. All was carefully explained, and Julie gave me a tutorial on the technology in the car.

I was pleasantly surprised with my car buying experience and recommend that if you consider buying a Cadillac, visit my new friends Jim and Julie Behncke at Arrowhead Cadillac. You won’t regret your experience.

 

© Joyce Clark, 2021       

FAIR USE NOTICE

This site contains copyrighted material the use of which is in accordance with Title 17 U.S. C., Section 107. The ‘fair use’ of any such copyrighted material as provided for in Section 107 of the US Copyright Law and who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For more information material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democratic, scientific and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a ‘fair use’ of any such material. For more information go to http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use,’ you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

Disclaimer: The comments in this blog are my personal opinion and may or may not reflect an adopted position of the city of Glendale and its city council.

My mission was to get my Covid shot as soon as was permissible. On Monday the state opened up to the 1B group which includes those individuals over 75. Yaaa…that was me! I got on the state site on Monday shortly after 9am to make an appointment to get my shot at State Farm Stadium. The website is crazy and convoluted. I managed to make an appointment for myself for this past Wednesday at 12:06 PM. When I tried to make an appointment for my husband it forced me to go back to the beginning and as a result, I couldn’t make an appointment for him until 2 days later then my appointment, this Friday. Inconvenient but workable.

They advise that you arrive 15 minutes before your appointment time and to wear a mask. The vaccination site is actually in the parking lot to the west of the stadium on the west side of 95th Avenue. I would advise approaching the site from the north. If you come in from the south you will have to turn around and get on 95th Avenue southbound.

There were scads of people waiting for the shot but I must say the site was well organized and well run. They had some national guard directing cars and all of the workers were volunteers, primarily from Blue Cross Blue Shield. Kudos to Blue Cross Blue Shield for allowing their employees to volunteer.

You stay in your car the entire time. Make sure you bring the appointment paperwork generated when you make your appointment online. It includes an ID number that you will need. You must bring ID and if you are not over 75 but are a teacher, first responder, care giver, etc., you need to bring a pay stub or something similar that proves you are eligible for Group 1B.

The vehicle lines were long but wait times were relatively short. In the first line they check your paperwork and with a grease marker they will write your ID number and appointment time on your windshield.

You are then directed to a second line with about 8 lanes. Each land is a shot dispensing site. After waiting about 10 minutes I got to the front of the line. I was asked which arm I preferred for the shot. The shot is done with a very fine needle and frankly, you don’t even feel it. I was repeatedly asked during the process if I was allegoric to anything or on a blood thinner. I was negative to both questions.

After you get the shot you are given a card that lists the kind of vaccine received (Pfizer), the date received and a suggested date for the second shot. You must go back to the state website to make your second appointment.

They then direct you to a parking area and ask that you wait 15 minutes at that location to ensure that there are no adverse reactions. I had absolutely no reaction to the shot. No chills, fever, allegeric reaction, etc. My arm is slightly sore but no different than getting a flu shot.

In conclusion, I arrived at about 11:40 AM and was done at about 12:45 PM. In total, the process took about an hour.

Today, one day after the shot I feel fine. I have had no adverse reactions at all. I understand after the second shot some people experience mild, flu-like symptoms. I will report back after my second shot.

If you are in the 1B Group or later when shots are available to all, I strongly urge you to get the vaccination. It’s painless and not overly time consuming. I look forward to being 95% protected after I receive my second dose. I won’t have to worry about getting it or transmitting it to a family member. If you are eligible now…please do it.

© Joyce Clark, 2021       

FAIR USE NOTICE

This site contains copyrighted material the use of which is in accordance with Title 17 U.S. C., Section 107. The ‘fair use’ of any such copyrighted material as provided for in Section 107 of the US Copyright Law and who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For more information material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democratic, scientific and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a ‘fair use’ of any such material. For more information go to http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use,’ you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

Now you see them, poof! Now you don’t 

Posted by Joyce Clark on January 10, 2021
Posted in National issues  | Tagged With: , , | 30 Comments

Disclaimer: The comments in this blog are my personal opinion and may or may not reflect an adopted position of the city of Glendale and its city council.

I recognize that half of my readers may share my political point of view and half may not. I believe, now more than ever, in our right of free speech. I have always allowed both negative and positive comments about my blogs to be posted. There will be those who read this blog and will no longer follow it. That is your right.

I feel compelled to write now in defense of our rights and liberties. In our pledge of allegiance it says, “I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and the republic for which it stands, one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.”  

It acknowledges that we are one nation, undivided. In the face of all that has occurred in our country this past year I no longer believe that, and I am concerned and fear for our country.

Our Constitution and its Amendments ensure our basic rights and freedoms and one of its bedrock Amendments is the very first one, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.”

These words establish six inalienable rights:

  • The right to be free from governmental establishment of religion (known as the Establishment Clause).
  • The right to be free from governmental interference with the practice of religion (known as the Free Exercise Clause).
  • The right to free speech (even hate speech).
  • The right to freedom of the press.
  • The right to assemble peacefully (and to associate freely with whomever you choose).
  • The right to petition the government of one’s grievances.

Our right to free speech is under assault by social media, the press, a certain class of elites and extreme elements within our county. The duly elected and still President of this county, President Trump, has been permanently banned from the social media site, Twitter, as have many of his supporters. The reason given is that they are instigating violence. Yet vile people like the Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran, the President of Venezuela Nicolas Maduro, those representing the Chinese Communist Party and Louis Farrakhan remain on Twitter to spew their brands of hatred. Twitter has become an exclusively liberal platform.

I have used Twitter for several years and I know if I were to retweet some things I would be banned as well. Several months ago, I migrated to Parler, an alternative social media posting site. Tonight, I learned the Apple and Google app stores are removing the public’s access to Parler’s app. It has also been reported that Apple is about to deplatform Parler and to stop hosting the site.

Fox News reported that CNN is pressuring cable providers to drop Fox from their offerings. CNN may succeed. I stopped watching Fox months ago and began watching Newsmax and OAN. But, my God, what is happening when a cable news station that leans conservative is under attack? What about the reports of employees being fired for attending the rally at the Capitol? Or the Senator from Missouri, Josh Hawley, whose book deal was cancelled because he led the opposition to question the Electoral College vote tally? What is happening in this country? Rather than trying to bridge our divide, the extremists are pursuing retribution.

This isn’t even close to McCarthyism. It’s worse. I am once again reminded of this,

“First they came for the communists, and I did not speak out because I was not a communist.
Then they came for the socialists, and I did not speak out because I was not a socialist.
Then they came for the labor leaders, but I did not speak out because I was not a unionist.
Then they came for the Jews, and I did not speak out because I was not a Jew.
As one day became another and others disappeared, gypsies, mentally retarded, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, criminals, anti-socials and emigrants, I remained silent because I was not one of them.
Then it was they came for me, but no one spoke for me because by then there was no one left to speak.”
Martin Niemoller,1945.

Under the guise of Covid, our right to practice our religions, as we wish, is also under attack. While bars, grocery stores and big chain stores remain open with crowds of consumers within them, churches and synagogues have been forced to go to court just to maintain their basic right to remain open.

Then there is the issue of the Second Amendment,  “A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.” The current population of the United States is 326.7 million. There are more guns in the United States than people at 393 million. Did you know in 2020 there were 5 million new gun owners? Under the new administration there will be an assault on gun ownership. Make no mistake, their agenda is to disarm the people.

I am a proud supporter of President Trump. I make no apology for my political beliefs. It is your right to disagree and I would never support the suppression of your right. Do I like everything he has said or done? No, of course not. He should have come out on January 6th and as our President more forcefully condemned the violence at the Capitol.

There is absolutely no justification to attempt to impeach him again with less than 2 weeks left in his Presidency. Nor is it justifiable to invoke the 25th Amendment. The absolute hatred of Trump leads some to seek to destroy the man completely.

But he has many accomplishments that have been good for all of us. He reformed the Veterans Administration and criminal sentencing; created the Right to Try Act; created the Space Force; rebuilt our military; kept us out of war, began establishing a lasting peace process in the Middle East; built 450 miles of the wall; removed business regulations and reduced taxes; and made us energy independent – to name just a few of his accomplishments.

Our country is divided as has occurred only once in its history during our Civil War. The repression and vengeance directed at conservatives will only continue this county’s division. I am deeply concerned. Half of this country, the 74 million people who voted for Trump, should not be denigrated by being called fascists, racists , terrorists and Nazis. The repression and retribution that is happening now will only fuel the passions of those who voted for Trump and know the election was stolen.

I saw the following post on Facebook and so far it has not been taken down,

“Let me be clear, I am not a Biden fan. I think he is corrupt, a liar, a racist bigot, is in bed with China and probably suffering from dementia. He has done nothing to improve anything in his 47-year political career. But what has Trump done in the past 4 years?

The ‘arrogant’ in the White House brokered four Middle East Peace Accords, something that 71 years of political intervention and endless war failed to produce.

The “buffoon” in the White House is the first president that has not engaged us in a foreign war since Eisenhower.

The ‘racist’ in the White House has had the greatest impact on the economy, bringing jobs, and lowering unemployment to the Black and Latino population of ANY other president. Ever.

The ‘liar’ in the White House has exposed the deep, widespread, and long-standing corruption in the FBI, the CIA, the NSA, and the Republican and Democratic parties.

The ‘buffoon’ in the White House turned NATO around and had them start paying their dues.

The ‘fool’ in the White House neutralized the North Koreans and stopped them sending missiles toward Japan and threatening the West Coast of the US.

The ‘xenophobe’ in the White House turned our relationship with the Chinese around, brought hundreds of businesses back to the US, and revived the economy.

This same ‘clown’ lowered your taxes, increased the standard deduction on your IRS return from $12,500 to $24,400 for married couples and caused the stock market to rise to record levels, positively impacting the retirement accounts of tens of millions of citizens.

The ‘clown” in the White House fast-tracked the development of multiple COVID Vaccines which are now available or will be soon. And yet we still don’t have a vaccine for SARS, Bird Flu, Ebola, or a host of diseases that arose during previous administrations.

The “clown’ in the White House rebuilt our military which the Obama administration crippled and fired 214 key generals and admirals in his first year of office.

I got it, you don’t like him. Many of you utterly hate and despise him. How special of you. He is serving you and ALL the American people. What are you doing besides calling him names and laughing at him? Some of you were even hoping that COVID would be the cause of his demise. (Ah, the left. The party of “tolerance”.)

Please educate me again as to what Biden has accomplished for America in his 47 years in office, besides making the whole Biden family richer? By the way, where is Hunter?

I’ll take the “clown” any day versus a fork tongued, smooth talking hypocritical corrupt liar. I want a strong leader who isn’t afraid to kick some butt when needed. I don’t need a fatherly figure. I don’t need a liar. That’s what Hollywood, CNN, MSNBC, ABC, NBC, CBS, the Daily News and the New York Times are for.

Call me a chump, a racist, or part of the basket of deplorables. I do not care!

God bless Donald Trump – the best, most unappreciated President in U.S. history.”

© Joyce Clark, 2021       

FAIR USE NOTICE

This site contains copyrighted material the use of which is in accordance with Title 17 U.S. C., Section 107. The ‘fair use’ of any such copyrighted material as provided for in Section 107 of the US Copyright Law and who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For more information material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democratic, scientific and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a ‘fair use’ of any such material. For more information go to http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use,’ you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

Disclaimer: The comments in this blog are my personal opinion and may or may not reflect an adopted position of the city of Glendale and its city council.

One of the major reasons the 4 bond authorization questions at Glendale’s November election went down in flames was because voters feared an automatic increase in the amount of Glendale property tax they would have to pay.

To refresh your memory there were 4 bond questions.  Question 1 asked for $87.2 million for Parks and Recreation and included Heroes Park build out. Question 2 asked for $81.5 million for street construction and reconstruction primarily of arterial streets and would have included 59th, 67th and 83rd Avenues as well as reconstruction of Bell Road, Thunderbird Road and Bethany Home Road. Question 3 was under $10 million for continued expansion of the new north portion of the landfill and its debt would have been paid off by users of city sanitation services. Question 4, also under $10 million would have been to improve local drainage issues such as fixing the flooding on Glenn Drive.

At all public meetings designed to provide information on these bond questions, by state law, the city was required to provide you with the worst-case scenario. From these public meetings the following was offered to the public, “However, as part of the disclosures we are required to tell you that the amount of the proposed bond authorization combined with the outstanding debt would exceed the city’s constitutional debt limit. But as we’ve said, once before, the city’s paying off some debt which will keep the amount of outstanding bonds below either limit (6% or 20%) and no bonds can or will be issued that would exceed the city’s constitutional debt limit.” (Assistant City Manager Vicki Rios, October 2020 public bond meeting)

However, what was little known or unclear to the voters was Resolution NO. R20-137 approved by the city council on October 13, 2020. Over the years, the informal council policy had been to maintain a flat (no increase) levy for property taxes. The city’s debt capacity could only increase by the value of new properties added to the city’s tax rolls each year, but it had never been formally adopted.

With the adoption of this resolution this policy became formal and states in part, “The City Council will not authorize the issuance of new G.O. bonds if the levy amount required to pay the debt service on existing G.O. bonds plus the new G.O. bonds exceeds the amount of the current year’s tax levy plus an amount of up to 2% per year for new growth (i.e. new property added to the tax rolls).”

With the formal adoption of this long-standing city council policy by resolution, the state disclosure requiring the city to tell you what the worst-case scenario could be is based upon the assumption that there would be an increase in the property tax levy. This disclosure is required but becomes irrelevant and is a moot point with the adoption of Resolution R20-137.

I am disappointed, obviously, that these 4 bond authorization questions did not gain voter approval. The items presented to voters were the result of the hard and extensive work done by a citizen bond committee. These were items that citizens who studied the issue felt were necessary to move our city forward. City council did not create these recommendations and after listening to their recommendations, approved them.

With the failure of all 4 bond authorization questions, projects that would have been funded will be scaled back, eliminated altogether or delayed for many years. The decisions regarding the projects will be considered by the city council when it takes up budget discussions this spring.

As the Yucca district councilmember, I want Yucca constituents to be aware that some of these bond authorizations are personally important to you. The Parks and Recreation bond authorization question, if it had passed, would have authorized the amount of $47 million to finally complete Heroes Park. This park has been in the city’s Capital Improvement Program (CIP) since 1998, a period of 23 years. It would have included sports fields, a Recreation & Aquatics Center (like the one in north Glendale), a dog park and library expansion. (Please note Heroes Park Lake begins construction this March/April and is scheduled for completion at the end of 2021).

With a doubling of the population in the Yucca district since the last census in 2010, amenities such as the completion of Heroes Park and reconstruction of Bethany Home Road are no longer luxuries but necessities. As more and more people move into this district the need for these amenities becomes greater and greater and the lack of them puts our district at a disadvantage with other districts in the city as well as with neighboring cities such as Peoria and Avondale.

Another infrastructure issue that would have been fixed included in the Streets Bond Authorization was Bethany Home Road between Glendale Avenue and Northern Avenue. It is a mess and frankly, embarrassing. Now I do not know when it will be reconstructed.

I would hope that the city would again present these items to the voters, perhaps at our next election in 2022. I would hope that the next time it is made clear that your property taxes will not go up and a more complete explanation of the projects to be funded would be offered.

© Joyce Clark, 2021       

FAIR USE NOTICE

This site contains copyrighted material the use of which is in accordance with Title 17 U.S. C., Section 107. The ‘fair use’ of any such copyrighted material as provided for in Section 107 of the US Copyright Law and who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For more information material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democratic, scientific and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a ‘fair use’ of any such material. For more information go to http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use,’ you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

Disclaimer: The comments in this blog are my personal opinion and may or may not reflect an adopted position of the city of Glendale and its city council.

Just as in years past, I like other Glendale councilmembers, received numerous complaints about the use of fireworks. Only this year the number of complaints seems to have grown exponentially. One Yucca district complainant said that upon calling the Glendale Police Department to make a fireworks complaint, it was said by dispatch that over 300 complaints had been received in Glendale. This week I will ask Glendale personnel for the final total number of complaints received and what disposition they received.

What can be done to stop an activity which has gotten out of hand, is being abused and appears to be unenforceable? Currently, not much. The state legislature has taken control of the fireworks law and allows cities extraordinarily little authority to control the activity. Here is the link to the full text of the state statute: ARS statute Fireworks

This portion of the law makes very clear that the state has usurped cities’ ability to regulate fireworks by saying,  36-1606. Consumer fireworks regulation; state preemption; further regulation of fireworks by local jurisdiction, “A. The sale and use of permissible consumer fireworks are of statewide concern. The regulation of permissible consumer fireworks pursuant to this article and their sale or use is not subject to further regulation by a governing body, except as follows:

(c) Prohibit the use of permissible consumer fireworks on days other than May 4 through May 6, June 24 through July 6 and December 24 through January 3 of each year and the second and third days of Diwali of each year.” It seems it is legal to use fireworks on:

  • May 4th through May 6th , Cinco de Mayo, a period of 3 days
  • June 24th through July 6th, Independence Day, a period of 13 days
  • December 24th though January 3rd, New Year’s Day, a period of 11 days
  • 2nd and 3rd days of Diwali of each year. Diwaliis India’s most important holiday—and a celebration of good over evil. This five-day festival of lights is observed by more than a billion people across faiths and is celebrated during the Hindu lunisolar month Kartika (between mid-October and mid-November). A period of 2 days.

Have you noticed the inconsistency in the number of days allowed per event? Everything from 2 days for Diwali to 13 days to celebrate the 4th of July, Independence Day. I would suggest that the state law be consistent for all recognized events allowing fireworks on May 4th and 5th for Cinco de Mayo; July 3rd and 4th for Independence Day; December 30th and 31st for New Year’s; and the 2nd and 3rd days of Diwali.

We know aerial fireworks are illegal per state statute: “(c) Does not include anything that is designed or intended to rise into the air and explode or to detonate in the air or to fly above the ground, including firework items defined by the APA 87-1 and known as firecrackers, bottle rockets, sky rockets, missile-type rockets, helicopters, aerial spinners, torpedoes, roman candles, mine devices, shell devices and aerial shell kits or reloadable tubes.”

We know what permissible fireworks are: “7. (i) Ground and handheld sparkling devices; (ii) Cylindrical fountains; (iii) Cone fountains; (iv) Illuminating torches; (v) Wheels; (vi) Ground spinners; (vii) Flitter sparklers; (viii) Toy smoke devices; (ix) Wire sparklers or dipped sticks; (x) Multiple tube ground and handheld sparkling devices, cylindrical fountains, cone fountains and illuminating torches manufactured in accordance with section 3.5 of the APA 87-1 and

(c) Does not include anything that is designed or intended to rise into the air and explode or to detonate in the air or to fly above the ground, including firework items defined by the APA 87-1 and known as firecrackers, bottle rockets, sky rockets, missile-type rockets, helicopters, aerial spinners, torpedoes, roman candles, mine devices, shell devices and aerial shell kits or reloadable tubes.”

The use of illegal fireworks is almost impossible to enforce without allowing police departments the use of new tools such as drones. A drone can provide factual evidence that should be allowed as meaningful evidence in a court of law.

State statute clearly says, “…their sale or use is not subject to further regulation by a governing body,…” That leaves only one option, that cities and citizens lobby the state legislature to amend the current law. Since cities cannot further regulate the use of fireworks complaints to elected officials are often wasted. If truth be told, most elected officials view the use of fireworks exactly the same way you do.

The only way to achieve some meaningful results would be to ask elected officials from all Valley cities to join their efforts into one coalition to lobby the state legislature for amendments to the existing law. Those amendments could include limiting the number of days for each event to two days; prohibiting their use after midnight; and granting police departments the ability to use drones with drone photograph captures as being recognized as admissible evidence in a court of law. 

© Joyce Clark, 2021      

FAIR USE NOTICE

This site contains copyrighted material the use of which is in accordance with Title 17 U.S. C., Section 107. The ‘fair use’ of any such copyrighted material as provided for in Section 107 of the US Copyright Law and who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For more information material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democratic, scientific and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a ‘fair use’ of any such material. For more information go to http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use,’ you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

%d bloggers like this: